Kent City Community Schools
Administrative Guidelines
 

5630.01 - STUDENT SECLUSION AND RESTRAINT

In the event that staff members need to restrain and/or seclude students, it must be done in accordance with the following procedures and guidelines. Such intervention may be used only as a last resort in emergency situations, if students pose a threat to themselves or others based on their behavior.

Only school staff and substitute personnel who are trained in permissible seclusion and physical restraint measures shall use such techniques.

Seclusion and restraint shall not be used for the following reasons/purposes:

 

A.

for the convenience of staff;

     
 

B.

as a substitute for an appropriate educational program;

   
 

C.

as a form of discipline/punishment;

   
 

D.

as a substitute for less restrictive alternatives;

   
 

E.

as a substitute for adequate staffing; or

   
 

F.

as a substitute for staff training in positive behavior supports and crisis prevention and intervention.

SECLUSION

 

A.

Prohibited Practices

   
 

The following practices are prohibited under all circumstances, including emergency situations:

   
 

1.

corporal punishment, as defined in 380.1312(1) of the revised school code, 1976 PA 451;

   
 

2.

the deprivation of basic needs;

   
 

3.

anything constituting child abuse;

     
 

4.

seclusion of preschool children; and

   
 

5.

the intentional application of any noxious substance(s) or stimuli that results in physical pain or extreme discomfort. A noxious substance or stimuli can either be generally acknowledged or specific to the student.

     
 

B.

Definition of Emergency Seclusion

   
 

Seclusion is a last resort, emergency safety intervention that provides an opportunity for the student to regain self-control. Seclusion is the confinement of a student in a room or other space from which the student is physically prevented from leaving and which provides for continuous adult observation of the student. A room or area used for seclusion requires the following conditions:

   
 

1.

must not be locked;

   
 

2.

must not prevent the student from exiting the area should staff become incapacitated or leave that area; and

   
 

3.

must provide for adequate space, lighting, ventilation, viewing, and the safety of the student.

   
 

C.

Limitations in Use

   
 

Seclusion is inappropriate for students who are severely self-injurious or suicidal.

   
 

D.

Time and Duration Emergency seclusion should not be used any longer than necessary to allow a student to regain control of his/her behavior, but generally these guidelines should be followed:

   
 

1.

Elementary school students should be secluded - no longer than fifteen (15) minutes.

   
 

2.

Middle and high school students should be secluded no longer than twenty (20) minutes.

     
 

3.

If an emergency seclusion lasts longer than the suggested maximum time, the following are required:

   
 

a.

additional support (e.g., changing of staff, introducing a nurse or specialist, obtaining additional expertise), and

   
 

b.

documentation to explain the extension beyond the time limit.

   
 

E.

Definition of Timeout

   
 

Timeout is a behavior intervention in which a student, for a limited and specified time, is placed in an environment where access to positive reinforcement is unavailable. Timeout should not be confused with seclusion because in a timeout setting a student's movement is not physically restricted.

   
 

Timeout lies within a continuum of procedures that help students self-regulate and control their behavior. The timeout continuum is as follows:

   
 

1.

planned ignoring (the systematic withdrawal of social attention for a predetermined time period upon the onset of mild levels of problem behavior);

   
 

2.

withdrawal of materials (removal of materials that the student is using upon the occurrence of the inappropriate behavior);

   
 

3.

contingent observation (student remains in a position to observe the group without participating or receiving reinforcement for a specified period to time);

   
 

4.

exclusionary timeout (student is removed from the immediate instructional setting in response to behavior that requires immediate and direct cessation. This form of timeout can take place within the same classroom or in a nearby location that can be supervised by an adult);

RESTRAINT

 

A.

Prohibited Practices

   
 

The following procedures are prohibited under all circumstances, including emergency situations:

   
 

1.

mechanical restraint;

   
 

2.

chemical restraint;

   
 

3.

corporal punishment as defined in 380.1312(1) of the revised school code, 1976 PA 451, otherwise known as the Corporal Punishment Act;

   
 

4.

the deprivation of basic needs;

   
 

5.

anything constituting child abuse;

   
 

6.

any restraint that negatively impacts breathing;

   
 

7.

prone restraint (the restraint of a person face down);

   
 

NOTE: School personnel who find themselves involved in the use of a prone restraint as the result of responding to an emergency must take immediate steps to end the prone restraint.

   
 

8.

the intentional application of any noxious substance(s) or stimuli that results in physical pain or extreme discomfort. A noxious substance or stimuli can either be generally acknowledged or specific to the student.

     
 

B.

Definition of Restraint

   
 

There are three (3) types of restraint: physical, chemical, and mechanical.

   
 

1.

Physical restraint involves direct physical contact that prevents or significantly restricts a student's movement. Restraint is a last resort, emergency safety intervention. Restraint is an opportunity for the student to regain self-control. This policy on physical restraint is not intended to forbid actions undertaken for the following reasons:

   
 

a.

to break up a fight;

   
 

b.

to take a weapon away from a student;

   
 

c.

to briefly hold the student (by an adult) in order to calm or comfort him/her;

   
 

d.

to have the minimum contact necessary to physically escort a student from one area to another;

   
 

e.

to assist a student in completing a task/response if the student does not resist or if resistance is minimal in intensity or duration;

   
 

f.

to hold a student for a brief time in order to prevent an impulsive behavior that threatens the student's immediate safety (e.g., running in front of a car).

   
 

2.

Chemical Restraint is the administration of medication for the purpose of restraint. Chemical restraint does not apply to medication prescribed by and administered in accordance with the directions of a physician.

     
 

3.

Mechanical Restraint means the use of any device or material attached to or adjacent to a student's body that restricts normal freedom of movement and that cannot be easily removed by a student. Mechanical restraint does not include the following:

   
 

a.

an adaptive or protective device recommended by a physician or therapist (when it is used as recommended);

   
 

b.

safety equipment used by the general student population as intended (e.g., seat belts, safety harness on school transportation).

   
 

C.

Time and Duration

   
 

Restraint should not be used:

   
 

1.

any longer than necessary to allow students to regain control of their behavior; and

   
 

2.

generally no longer than ten (10) minutes.

   
 

If an emergency restraint lasts longer than ten (10) minutes, the following are required:

   
 

1.

additional support (e.g., change of staff, introducing a nurse or specialist, obtaining additional expertise); and

   
 

2.

documentation to explain the extension beyond the time limit.

USE OF EMERGENCY SECLUSION/RESTRAINT

 

A.

When to Use Emergency Seclusion/Restraint

   
 

A behavior that requires immediate intervention constitutes an emergency. Seclusion/restraint must be used only under emergency situations and if essential. An emergency that may require the use of seclusion/restraint includes the following:

   
 

1.

behavior that poses an imminent risk to the safety of an individual student;

   
 

2.

behavior that poses an imminent risk to the safety of others; or

   
 

3.

behavior that is otherwise governed by the revised school code, 1976 PA 451, otherwise known as the Corporal Punishment Act (restraint only).

   
 

B.

General Procedures for Emergency Seclusion/Restraint

   
 

1.

An emergency seclusion/restraint may not be used in place of appropriate, less restrictive interventions.

   
 

2.

Emergency seclusion/restraint shall be performed in a manner that is:

   
 

a.

safe;

   
 

b.

appropriate; and

   
 

c.

proportionate and sensitive to the student's

   
 

1)

severity of behavior;

   
 

2)

chronological and developmental age;

   
 

3)

physical size;

     
 

4)

gender;

   
 

5)

physical condition;

   
 

6)

medical condition;

   
 

7)

psychiatric condition; and

   
 

8)

personal history, including any history of physical or sexual abuse.

   
 

3.

Staff shall immediately call for help from within the building at the onset of an emergency.

   
 

Substitute teachers will be informed of all District emergency procedures, including the emergency use of seclusion and restraint.

   
 

4.

Staff Requirements while using seclusion/restraint, staff must include the following:

   
 

a.

involve appropriately trained, identified personnel to protect the care, welfare, dignity, and safety of the student;

   
 

b.

continually observe the student in seclusion/restraint for indications of physical distress and seek medical assistance if there is a concern; and

   
 

c.

document observations.

   
 

5.

Document and report each use of an emergency seclusion/restraint and the reason for each use according to the following procedures:

   
 

a.

document in writing and report to the building administration immediately;

   
 

b.

report to the parent or guardian immediately or as soon as possible; and

     
 

c.

document in a written report for each use of seclusion/restraint (including multiple uses within a given day) and give to the parent or guardian within twenty-four (24) hours.

   
 

6.

After any use of an emergency seclusion/restraint, staff must debrief and consult with parents and students (as appropriate) regarding the determination of future actions.

   
 

Discussion shall include the following:

   
 

a.

What precipitated the behavior that required emergency intervention?

   
 

b.

Is there any anticipation that the behavior will occur again?

   
 

c.

Is there a need for follow-up action?

   
 

d.

What is the specific follow-up action?

   
 

7.

Should a pattern of reoccurring behavior emerge, or be anticipated, which may require the use of emergency seclusion/restraint, the professional staff, in conjunction with the building administrator must do the following:

   
 

a.

conduct a functional behavioral assessment;

   
 

b.

develop or revise a Positive Behavior Support Plan (PBSP) to facilitate the reduction or elimination of the use of seclusion/restraint;

   
 

c.

develop an assessment and planning process conducted by a team knowledgeable about the student, including the following:

   
 

1)

the parent;

   
 

2)

the student (if appropriate);

     
 

3)

people who are responsible for implementation of the PBSP; and

   
 

4)

People who are knowledgeable in PBS.

   
 

Should a pattern of behavior, which requires the use of reoccurring emergency seclusion/restraint emerge, or be anticipated an Emergency Intervention Plan (EIP) should be developed in addition to the PBSP to protect the health, safety, and dignity of the student. The EIP should be developed by a team in partnership with the parent. The team shall include a staff person knowledgeable about seclusion/restraint. The EIP should be developed and implemented by taking the following documented steps:

   
 

a.

describe in detail the emergency intervention procedures;

   
 

b.

inquire of the student's medical personnel (with parent consent) regarding any known medical or health contraindications for the use of seclusion/restraint;

   
 

c.

conduct a peer review by knowledgeable staff; and

   
 

d.

gain informed consent from the parent after providing the following:

   
 

1)

an explanation of emergency procedures to be followed and the purpose for the emergency seclusion/restraint

   
 

2)

a description of possible discomforts or risks

   
 

3)

a discussion of possible alternative strategies with advantages and disadvantages

   
 

4)

answers to any questions and

     
 

5)

information on freedom to withdraw consent at any time

   
 

When seclusion/restraint is included in an emergency intervention plan, the student should be told or shown the circumstances under which the emergency seclusion/restraint will be used. The plan shall provide due consideration for the humanness or social acceptability of any seclusion/restraint included in an emergency intervention plan. As defined in the emergency intervention plan, it shall:

   
 

a.

provide periodic review of the plan and related data;

   
 

b.

ensure that responsible staff are trained in the specific techniques described in the emergency intervention plan; and

   
 

c.

maintain necessary staffing at all times.

   
 

8.

The building administrator shall, collect data and forward all incident reports and data regarding the use of seclusion/restraint to the Superintendent's office.

   
 

The data will be collected and analyzed to include the following:

   
 

a.

analysis to determine the efficacy of the school's school-wide system of behavioral support;

     
 

b.

analysis in the context of suspension, expulsion, and dropout data;

   
 

c.

analysis for the purposes of continuous improvement of training and technical assistance toward the reduction or elimination of seclusion/restraint;

   
 

d.

analysis on a schedule determined by the MDE;`

   
 

e.

a report to the MDE, if and as required; and

     
 

f.

a list of appropriately trained, identified personnel and their levels of:

   
 

1)

education;

   
 

2)

training; and

   
 

3)

knowledge.

TRAINING ON SECLUSION/RESTRAINT

 

A.

Training Framework

   
 

A comprehensive training will be implemented which includes the following:

   
 

1.

awareness training for the broader educational community, including pre-service training for all teachers;

   
 

2.

awareness training for substitute teachers; and

   
 

3.

comprehensive training for key identified personnel.

   
 

B.

Training Components

   
 

All training will include:

   
 

1.

proactive practices and strategies that ensure the dignity of students;

   
 

2.

conflict resolution;

   
 

3.

mediation;

   
 

4.

social skills training;

   
 

5.

de-escalation techniques;

   
 

6.

positive behavior support strategies;

   
 

7.

techniques to identify student behaviors that may trigger emergency safety situations;

   
 

8.

related safety considerations, including information regarding the increased risk of injury to students and staff when seclusion or restraint is used;

   
 

9.

instruction in the use of seclusion and restraint;

   
 

10.

identification of events and environmental factors that may trigger safety situations; and

   
 

11.

instruction on the State Board of Education policy, on Supporting Student Behavior: The Emergency Use of Seclusion and Restraint.

   
 

C.

Comprehensive Training for Identified Personnel

   
 

Each building administrator will identify sufficient key personnel to ensure that trained personnel are available for an emergency situation. Before using seclusion or restraint with students, key identified personnel who may have to respond to an emergency safety situation must be trained in the following:

   
 

1.

proactive practices and strategies that ensure the dignity of students;

   
 

2.

conflict resolution;

   
 

3.

mediation;

   
 

4.

social skills training;

   
 

5.

de-escalation techniques;

   
 

6.

positive behavior support strategies;

     
 

7.

techniques to identify student behaviors that may trigger emergency safety situations;

   
 

8.

related safety considerations, including information regarding the increased risk of injury to students and staff when seclusion or restraint is used;

   
 

9.

instruction in the use of seclusion and restraint;

   
 

10.

identification of events and environmental factors that may trigger emergency safety situations;

   
 

11.

instruction on the State Board of Education policy, Supporting Student Behavior: The Emergency Use of Seclusion and Restraint;

   
 

12.

description and identification of dangerous behaviors;

   
 

13.

methods for evaluating the risk of harm to determine whether the use of seclusion or restraint is warranted;

   
 

14.

types of seclusion;

   
 

15.

types of restraint;

   
 

16.

the risk of using seclusion and restraint in consideration of a student's known and unknown medical or psychological limitations;

   
 

17.

instruction in the use of seclusion and restraint;

   
 

18.

the effects of seclusion and restraint on ALL students;

   
 

19.

methodology monitoring the physical signs of distress; and

   
 

20.

ways to obtain medical assistance.

Adapted from Michigan State Board of Education Standards for Emergency Use of Seclusion and Restraint, adopted December 12, 2006