Kent City Community Schools
Administrative Guidelines
 

5530 - DRUG PREVENTION

The descriptions listed below may be useful in detecting drug use through observation of student behavior and physical/mental condition.

 

STEROIDS

 

The Superintendent shall require that the warning notice concerning anabolic steroids is installed and properly maintained in each of the District's locker rooms or athletic dressing areas. This notice must contain the following warning: "Use of a performance-enhancing substance by a student is a violation that will affect a student's athletic eligibility and extra-curricular participation, as determined by the Board."

 

INHALANTS

 

Effects

Immediate negative effects of inhalants include nausea, sneezing, coughing, nosebleeds, fatigue, lack of coordination, and loss of appetite. Solvents and aerosol sprays also decrease the heart and respiratory rates, and impair judgement. Amyl and butyl nitrite cause rapid pulse, headaches, and involuntary passing of urine and feces. Long-term use may result in hepatitis or brain hemorrhage.

Deeply inhaling the vapors, or using large amounts over a short period of time, may result in disorientation, violent behavior, unconsciousness, or death. High concentrations of inhalants can cause suffocation by displacing the oxygen in the lungs or by depressing the central nervous system to the point that breathing stops. Long-term use can cause weight loss, fatigue, electrolyte imbalance, and muscle fatigue. Repeated sniffing of concentrated vapors over time can permanently damage the nervous system.

Type

Street Names

Appearances

How Used

 

Nitrous Oxide

Laughing gas

Propellant for whipped cream

Vapors inhaled

 

Whippets

in aerosol spray can

 
 

Small 8 gram metal cylinder

sold with a balloon or pipe

(buzz bomb)

 

Amyl Nitrite

Poppers

Clear yellowish liquid in

Vapors inhaled

   

ampules

 
 

Butyl Nitrite

Rush

Packaged in small bottles

Vapors inhaled

 

Bolt

 

Locker room

Bullet

Climax

 

Chlorohydro-

Aerosol sprays

Aerosol paint cans

Vapors inhaled

carbons

 

Containers of cleaning fluid

 
   

Hydrocarbons

Solvents

Cans of aerosol propellants

Vapors inhaled

 

gasoline, glue, paint thinner

 
 

CANNABIS

 

Effects

All forms of cannabis have negative physical and mental effects. Several regularly observed physical effects of cannabis are a substantial decrease in the heart rate, bloodshot eyes, dry mouth and throat, and increased appetite.

Use of cannabis may impair or reduce short term memory and comprehension, alter sense of time, and reduce ability to perform tasks requiring concentration and coordination such as driving a car. Research also shows that students do not retain knowledge when they are "high". Motivation and cognition may be altered, making the acquisition of new information difficult. Marijuana can also produce paranoia and psychosis.

Because users often inhale the unfiltered smoke deeply and then hold it in their lungs as long as possible, marijuana is damaging to the lungs and pulmonary system. Marijuana smoke contains more cancer-causing agents than tobacco.

Long-term users of cannabis may develop psychological dependency and require more of the drug to get the same effect. The drug can become the center of their lives.

Type

Street Name

Appearance

How Used

 

Marijuana

Pot

Dried parsley mixed with

Eaten

 

Grass

stems that may include seeds

Smoked

Weed

 

Reefer

Dope

Mary Jane

Sinsemilla

Acapulco Gold

Thai Sticks

 

Tetrahydro-

THC

Soft gelatin capsules

Taken orally

cannabinol

 

Smoked

   

Hashish

Hash

Brown or black cakes or

Eaten

 

balls

Smoked

Hashish Oil

Hash Oil

Concentrated syrupy liquid

Smoked-mixed

 

varying in color from clear

with tobacco

to black

 
 

STIMULANT: COCAINE

 

Effects

Cocaine stimulates the central nervous system. Its immediate effects include dilated pupils and elevated blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature. Occasional use can cause a stuffy or runny nose, while chronic use can ulcerate the mucous membrane of the nose. Injecting cocaine with unsterile equipment can cause AIDS, hepatitis, and other diseases. Preparation of freebase, which involves the use of volatile solvents, can result in death or injury from fire or explosion. Cocaine can produce psychological and physical dependency, a feeling that the user cannot function without the drug. In addition, tolerance develops rapidly.

Crack or freebase rock is extremely addictive, and its effects are felt within ten (10) seconds. The physical effects include dilated pupils, increased pulse rate, elevated blood pressure, insomnia, loss of appetite, tactile hallucinations, paranoia, and seizure.

The use of cocaine can cause death by disrupting the brain's control of the heart and respiration.

Type

Street Name

Appearance

How Used

 

Cocaine

Coke

White crystalline powder,

Inhaled through

 

Snow

often diluted with other

nasal passages

Flake

ingredients

Injected

White

 

Smoked

Blow

 

Nose Candy

Big C

Snowbirds

Lady

 

Crack or

Crack

Light brown or beige pellets

Smoked

Cocaine

Freebase rocks

- or crystalline rocks that

 
 

Rock

resemble coagulated soap;

 

often packaged in small vials

 

OTHER STIMULANTS

 

Effects

Stimulants can cause increased heart and respiratory rates, elevated blood pressure, dilated pupils and decreased appetite. In addition, users may experience sweating, headache, blurred vision, dizziness, sleeplessness, and anxiety. Extremely high doses can cause a rapid or irregular heartbeat, tremors, loss of coordination, and even physical collapse. An amphetamine injection creates a sudden increase in blood pressure that can result in stroke, very high fever, or heart failure.

In addition to the physical effects, users report feeling restless, anxious, and moody. Higher doses intensify the effects. Persons who use large amounts of amphetamines over a long period of time can develop an amphetamine psychosis that includes hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia. These symptoms usually disappear when drug use ceases.

Type

Street Names

Appearance

How Used

 

Amphetamines

Speed

Capsules

Taken orally

 

Uppers

Pills

Injected

Ups

Tablets

Inhaled through

Black Beauties

 

nasal passages

Pep Pills

 

Copilots

Bumblebees

Hearts

Benzedrine

Dexedrine

Footballs

Biphetamine

 

Methamphet-

Crank

White powder

Taken orally

amines

Crystal Meth

Pills

Injected

 

Crystal

A rock which resembles a

Inhaled through

Methedrine

block of paraffin

nasal passages

Speed

   
 

OTHER STIMULANTS (continued)

 

Type

Street Names

Appearance

How Used

 

Additional

Ritalin

Pills

Taken orally

Stimulants

Cylert

Capsules

Injected

 

Preludin

Tablets

 

Didres

 

Pre-State

Voranil

Tenuate

Tepanil

Pondimin

Sandres

Plegine

Ionamin

 

DEPRESSANTS

 

Effects

The effects of depressants are in many ways similar to the effects of alcohol. Small amounts can produce calmness and relaxed muscles, but somewhat larger doses can cause slurred speech, staggering gait, and altered perception. Very large doses can cause respiratory depression, coma, and death. The combination of depressants and alcohol can multiply the effects of the drugs, thereby multiplying the risks.

The use of depressants can cause both physical and psychological dependence. Regular use over time may result in a tolerance to the drug, leading the user to increase the quantity consumed. When regular users suddenly stop taking large doses, they may develop withdrawal symptoms ranging from restlessness, insomnia, and anxiety to convulsions and death.

Babies born to mothers who abuse depressants during pregnancy may be physically dependent on the drugs and show withdrawal symptoms shortly after they are born. Birth defects and behavioral problems also may result.

Type

Street Name

Appearance

How Used

 

Barbiturates

Downers

Red, yellow, blue, or red

Taken orally

 

Barbs

and blue

 

Blue Devils

 

Red Devils

Yellow Jackets

Yellows

Nembutal

Seconal

Amytal

Tuinals

 

Methaqualone

Quaaludes

Tablets

Taken orally

 

Ludes

 

Sopors

 
 

Tranquilizers

Valium

Tablets

Taken orally

 

Lubrium

Capsules

 

Equanil

 

Miltown

Serax

Tranzene

 

HALLUCINOGENS

 

Effects

Phencyclidine (PCP) interrupts the functions of the neocortex, the section of the brain that controls the intellect and keeps instincts in check. Because the drug blocks pain receptors, violent PCP episodes may result in self-inflicted injuries.

The effects of PCP vary, but users frequently report a sense of distance and estrangement. Time and body movement are slowed down. Muscular coordination worsens and senses are dulled. Speech is blocked and incoherent.

Chronic users of PCP report persistent memory problems and speech difficulties. Some of these effects may last six (6) months to a year following prolonged daily use. Mood disorders - depression anxiety, and violent behavior - also occur. In later stages of chronic use, users often exhibit paranoid and violent behavior and experience hallucinations. Large doses may produce convulsions and coma, heart and lung failure, or ruptured blood vessels in the brain.

Lysergic acid (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin cause delusions and hallucinations. The physical effects may include dilated pupils, elevated body temperature, increased heart rate and blood pressure, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, and tremors.

Sensations and feelings may change rapidly. It is common to have a bad psychological reaction to LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin. The user may experience panic, confusion, suspicion, anxiety, and loss of control. Delayed effects, or flashbacks, can occur even after use has ceased.

Type

Street Name

Appearance

How Used

 

Phencyclidine

PCP

Liquid

Taken orally

 

Angel Dust

Capsules

Injected

Loveboat

White crystalline powder

Smoked - can be

Lovely

Pills

sprayed on

Hog

 

cigarettes

Killer Weed

parsley, and

 

marijuana

 
 

Lysergic Acid

LSD

Brightly colored tablets

Taken orally

Diethylamide

Acid

Impregnated blotter paper

Licked off paper

 

Thin squares of gelatine

Gelatine and

 

Dragon

Green or Red

liquid can be

 

White Lightning

Clear liquid

put in the eyes

     

Mescaline and

Mesc

Hard brown discs

Discs; chewed,

Peyote

Buttons

Tablets

swallowed, or

 

Cactus

Capsules

smoked

 

Tablets and

capsules taken

orally

 

NARCOTICS

 

Effects

Narcotics initially produce a feeling of euphoria that often is followed by drowsiness, nausea, and vomiting. Users also may experience constricted pupils, watery eyes, and itching. An overdose may produce slow and shallow breathing, clammy skin, convulsions, coma, and possibly death.

Tolerance to narcotics develops rapidly and dependence is likely. The use of contaminated syringes may result in diseases such as AIDS, endocarditis, and hepatitis. Addiction in pregnant women can lead to premature, stillborn, or addicted infants who experience severe withdrawal symptoms.

Type

Street Name

Appearance

How Used

 

Heroin

Smack

Powder, white to dark brown, tar-like substance

Injected

 

Horse

 

Inhaled through

Brown Sugar

nasal passages

Jounk

 

Mud

Big H

Black Tar

 
 

Methadone

Dolophine

Solution

Taken orally

 

Methadone

 

Injected

Amidone

 
 

Codeine

Empirine, compound

Dark liquid varying in

Taken orally

 

with Codeine

thickness

Injected

Tylenol with

Capsules

 

Codeine

 

Cough medicines

with codeine

Codeine

 

Morphine

Pectoral Syrup

White crystals

Injected

 

Hypodermic tablets

Taken orally

Injectable solutions

Smoked

 

Meperidine

Pethidine

White powder

Taken orally

 

Demerol Solution

Tablets

Injected

Mepergan

 
 

NARCOTICS (continued)

 

Opium

Paregoric

Dark brown chunks

Smoked

 

Dover's Powder

Powder

Eaten

Parepectolia

 
 
 

Other Narcotics

Percocet

Tablets

Taken orally

 

Percodan

Capsules

Injected

Tussionex

Liquid

 

Fentanyl

 

Darvon

Talwin

Lomotil

 

DESIGNER DRUGS

 

Effects

Illegal drugs are defined in terms of their chemical formulas. To circumvent these legal restrictions, underground chemists modify the molecular structure of certain illegal drugs to produce analogs known as designer drugs. These drugs can be several hundred times stronger than the drugs they are designed to imitate.

The narcotics analogs can cause symptoms such as those seen in Parkinson's disease - uncontrollable tremors, drooling, impaired speech, paralysis, and irreversible brain damage. Analogs of amphetamines and methamphetamines cause nausea, blurred vision, chills or sweating, and faintness. Psychological effects include anxiety, depression, and paranoia. As little as one dose can cause brain damage. The analogs of phencyclidine cause illusions, hallucinations, and impaired perception.

Type

Street Names

Appearance

How Used

 

Analogs of

Synthetic Heroin

White powder resembling

Inhaled through

Fentanyl

China White

heroin

nasal passages

(narcotic)

 

Injected

DESIGNER DRUGS (continued)

 

Type

Street Names

Appearance

How Used

 

Analogs of

Synthetic Heroin

White powder

Inhaled through

Meperidine

MPTP (New Heroin)

 

nasal passages

(narcotic)

MPPP

 
 

PEAP

 

Analogs of

MDMA (Ecstacy,

White powder

Taken orally

Amphetamines

XTC, Adam,

Tablets

Injected

and Metham-

Essence)

Capsules

Inhaled through

phetamines

MDM

 

nasal passages

(hallucinogens)

STP

 
 

PMA

2.5-DMA

TMA

DOM

DOB

 
 

Analogs of

PCP

White powder

Taken orally

Phencyclidine

PCE

 

Injected

(PCP)

TCP

Smoked

(hallucinogens)

   
 

CLUB DRUGS

 

Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)

Slang or Street Names: Ecstasy, XTC, X, Adam, Clarity, Lover's Speed

MDMA was developed and patented in the early 1900's as a chemical precursor in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals. Chemically, MDMA is similar to the stimulant amphetamine and the hallucinogen mescaline. MDMA can produce both stimulant and psychedelic effects. Thylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA) and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDMA) are drugs chemically similar to MDMA.

MDMA is taken orally, usually in a tablet or a capsule. MDMA's effects last approximately 3 to 6 hours, though confusion, depression, sleep problems, anxiety, and paranoia have been reported to occur even weeks after the drug is taken.

MDMA can produce a significant increase in heart rate and blood pressure and a sense of alertness like that associated with amphetamine use.

The stimulant effects of MDMA, which enable users to dance for extended periods, may also lead to dehydration, hypertension, and heart or kidney failure.

MDMA can be extremely dangerous in high doses. It can cause a marked increase in body temperature (malignant hypothermia) leading to the muscle breakdown and kidney and cardiovascular system failure reported in some fatal cases at raves. MDMA use may also lead to heart attack, strokes, and seizures in some users.

MDMA is neurotoxic. Chronic use of MDMA was found, first in laboratory animals and more recently in humans, to produce long-lasting, perhaps permanent, damage to the neurons that release serotonin, and consequent memory impairment.

Gamma-hydroxybutyrats (GHB)

Slang or Street Names: Grievous Bodily Harm, G, Liquid Ecstasy, Georgia Home Boy

GHB can be produced in clear liquid, white powder, tablet, and capsule forms, and it is often used in combination with alcohol, making it even more dangerous. GHB has been increasingly involved in poisonings, overdoses, date rapes and fatalities. The drug is used predominantly by adolescents and young adults, often when they attend nightclubs and raves. GHB is often manufactured in homes with recipes and ingredients found and purchased on the Internet.

GHB is usually abused either for its intoxicating/sedative/euporiant properties or for its growth hormone-releasing effects, which can build muscles.

Some individuals are synthesizing GHB in home laboratories. Ingredients in GHB, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1, 4-butanediol, can also be converted by the body into GHB. These ingredients are found in a number of dietary supplements available in health food stores and gymnasiums to induce sleep, build muscles, and enhance sexual performance.

GHB is central nervous system depressant that can relax or sedate the body. At higher doses it can slow breathing and heart rate to dangerous levels.

GHB's intoxicating effects begin 10 to 20 minutes after the drug is taken. The effects typically last up to 4 hours, depending on the dosage. At lower doses, GHB can relieve anxiety and produce relaxation; however, as the dose increases, the sedative effects may result in sleep and eventual coma or death.

Overdose of GHB can occur rather quickly and the signs are similar to those of other sedatives; drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, headache, loss of consciousness, loss of reflexes, impaired breathing and ultimately death.

GHB is cleared from the body relatively quickly, so it is sometimes difficult to detect in emergency rooms and other treatment facilities.

Ketamine

Slang or Street Names: Special K, K, Vitamin K, Cat Vitamin

Ketamine is an injectable anesthetic that has been approved for both human and animal use in medical settings since 1970. About 90 percent of the Ketamine legally sold today is intended for veterinary use.

Ketamine gained popularity for abuse in the 1980's when it was realized that large doses cause reactions similar to those associated with use of phencyclidine (PCP), such as dream-like states and hallucinations.

Ketamine is produced in liquid form or as a white powder that is often snorted or smoked with marijuana or tobacco products. In some cities, Ketamine is reportedly being injected intramuscularly.

At higher doses, Ketamine can cause delirium, amnesia, impaired motor function, high blood pressure, depression, and potentially fatal respiratory problems.

Low-dose intoxication from Ketamine results in impaired attention, learning ability, and memory.

Rohypnol

Slang or Street Names: Roofies, Rophies, Roche, Forget-me Pill

Rohypnol® (flunitrazeparm) belongs to the class of drugs known as benzodiazepines (such as Valium®, Halcion®, Xanax®, and Versed®. It is not approved for prescription use in the United States, although it is approved in Europe and is used in more than sixty (60) countries as a treatment for insomnia, as a sedative, and as a presurgery anesthetic.

Rohyphol is tasteless and odorless, and it dissolves easily in carbonated beverages. The sedative and toxic effects of Rohypnol are aggravated by concurrent use of alcohol. Even without alcohol, a dose of Rohypnol as small a 1 mg can impair a victim for eight (8) to twelve (12) hours.

Rohypnol is usually taken orally, although there are reports that it can be ground up and snorted.

The drug can cause profound "anterograde amnesia"; that is, individuals may not remember events they experienced while under the effects of the drug. This may be why one of the street names for Rohypnol is "the forget-me pill" reportedly used in sexual assaults.

Other adverse effects associated with Rohypnol include decreased blood pressure, drowsiness, visual disturbances, dizziness, confusion, gastrointestinal disturbances, and urinary retention.

Methamphetamine

Slang or Street Names: Speed, Ice, Chalk, Meth, Crystal, Crank, Fire, Glass

Methamphetamine is a toxic, addictive stimulant that effects many areas of the central nervous system. The drug is often made in clandestine laboratories from relatively inexpensive over-the-counter ingredients. It is being used by diverse groups, including young adults who attend raves, in many regions of the country.

Available in many forms, methamphetamine can be smoked, snorted, injected, or orally ingested.

Methamphetamine is a white, odorless, bitter-tasting crystalline powder that easily dissolves in beverages.

Methamphetamine is not sold in the same way as many other illicit drugs; it is typically sold through networks, not on the street.

Methamphetamine use is associated with serious health consequences, including memory loss, aggression, violence, psychotic behavior, and potential cardiac and neurological damage. Methamphetamine abusers typically display signs of agitation, excited speech, decreased appetite, and increased physical activity levels.

Methamphetamine is neurotoxic. Methamphetamine abusers may have significant reductions in dopamine transporters.

Methamphetamine use can contribute to higher rates of transmission of infectious diseases, especially hepatitis and HIV/AIDS.

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)

Slang or Street Names: Acid, Boomers, Yellow Sunshines

LSD is a hallucinogen. It induces abnormalities in sensory perceptions. The effects of LSD are unpredictable depending on the amount taken, on the surroundings in which the drug is used, and on the users personality, mood, and expectations.

LSD is typically taken by mouth. It is sold in tablet, capsule and liquid forms as well as in pieces of blotter paper that have absorbed the drug.

Typically an LSD user feels the effects of the drug thirty (30) to ninety (90) minutes after taking it. The physical effects include dilated pupils, higher body temperature, increased heart rate and blood pressure, sweating, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, dry mouth, and tremors.

LSD users report numbness, weakness, or trembling, and nausea is common.

There are two long term disorders associated with LSD, persistent psychosis and hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (which used to be called "flashbacks").

© Neola 2006