John Glenn School Corporation
Administrative Guidelines
 

5530 - SYMPTOMS OF OVERDOSE WITH DRUGS

The descriptions listed below may be useful in detecting drug use through observation of student behavior and physical/mental condition.

INHALANTS

Effects

Immediate negative effects of inhalants include nausea, sneezing, coughing, nosebleeds, fatigue, lack of coordination, and loss of appetite. Solvents and aerosol sprays also decrease the heart and respiratory rates, and impair judgement. Amyl and butyl nitrite cause rapid pulse, headaches, and involuntary passing of urine and feces. Long-term use may result in hepatitis or brain hemorrhage.

Deeply inhaling the vapors, or using large amounts over a short period of time, may result in disorientation, violent behavior, unconsciousness, or death. High concentrations of inhalants can cause suffocation by displacing the oxygen in the lungs or by depressing the central nervous system to the point that breathing stops. Long-term use can cause weight loss, fatigue, electrolyte imbalance, and muscle fatigue. Repeated sniffing of concentrated vapors over time can permanently damage the nervous system.

Type

Street Names

Appearances

How Used

       

Nitrous Oxide

Laughing gas

Propellant for whipped cream

Vapors inhaled

 

Whippets

in aerosol spray can

 
   

Small 8 gram metal cylinder

 
   

sold with a balloon or pipe

 
   

(buzz bomb)

 
       

Amyl Nitrite

Poppers

Clear yellowish liquid in

Vapors inhaled

   

ampules

 
       

Butyl Nitrite

Rush

Packaged in small bottles

Vapors inhaled

 

Bolt

   
 

Locker room

   
 

Bullet

   
 

Climax

   

INHALANTS (continued)

Type

Street Name

Appearance

How Used

       

Chlorohydro-

Aerosol sprays

Aerosol paint cans

Vapors inhaled

carbons

 

Containers of cleaning fluid

 
       

Hydrocarbons

Solvents

Cans of aerosol propellants

Vapors inhaled

   

gasoline, glue, paint thinner

 

CANNABIS

Effects

All forms of cannabis have negative physical and mental effects. Several regularly observed physical effects of cannabis are a substantial decrease in the heart rate, bloodshot eyes, dry mouth and throat, and increased appetite.

Use of cannabis may impair or reduce short term memory and comprehension, alter sense of time, and reduce ability to perform tasks requiring concentration and coordination such as driving a car. Research also shows that students do not retain knowledge when they are "high". Motivation and cognition may be altered, making the acquisition of new information difficult. Marijuana can also produce paranoia and psychosis.

Because users often inhale the unfiltered smoke deeply and then hold it in their lungs as long as possible, marijuana is damaging to the lungs and pulmonary system. Marijuana smoke contains more cancer-causing agents than tobacco.

Long-term users of cannabis may develop psychological dependency and require more of the drug to get the same effect. The drug can become the center of their lives.

Type

Street Name

Appearance

How Used

       

Marijuana

Pot

Dried parsley mixed with

Eaten

 

Grass

stems that may include seeds

Smoked

 

Weed

   
 

Reefer

   
 

Dope

   
 

Mary Jane

   
 

Sinsemilla

   
 

Acupulco Gold

   
 

Thai Sticks

   

CANNABIS (continued)

Type

Street Name

Appearance

How Used

       

Tetrahydro-

THC

Soft gelatin capsules

Taken orally

cannabinol

   

Smoked

       

Hashish

Hash

Brown or black cakes or

Eaten

   

balls

Smoked

       
       

Hashish Oil

Hash Oil

Concentrated syrupy liquid

Smoked-mixed

   

varying in color from clear

with tobacco

   

to black

 

STIMULANT: COCAINE

Effects

Cocaine stimulates the central nervous system. Its immediate effects include dilated pupils and elevated blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature. Occasional use can cause a stuffy or runny nose, while chronic use can ulcerate the mucous membrane of the nose. Injecting cocaine with unsterile equipment can cause AIDS, hepatitis, and other diseases. Preparation of freebase, which involves the use of volatile solvents, can result in death or injury from fire or explosion. Cocaine can produce psychological and physical dependency, a feeling that the user cannot function without the drug. In addition, tolerance develops rapidly.

Crack or freebase rock is extremely addictive, and its effects are felt within 10 seconds. The physical effects include dilated pupils, increased pulse rate, elevated blood pressure, insomnia, loss of appetite, tactile hallucinations, paranoia, and seizure.

The use of cocaine can cause death by disrupting the brain's control of the heart and respiration.

Type

Street Name

Appearance

How Used

       

Cocaine

Coke

White crystalline powder,

Inhaled through

 

Snow

often diluted with other

nasal passages

 

Flake

ingredients

Injected

 

White

 

Smoked

 

Blow

   
 

Nose Candy

   
 

Big C

   
 

Snowbirds

   
 

Lady

   
       

Crack or

Crack

Light brown or beige pellets

Smoked

Cocaine

Freebase rocks

- or crystalling rocks that

 
 

Rock

resemble coagulated soap;

 
   

often packaged in small vials

 

OTHER STIMULANTS

Effects

Stimulants can cause increased heart and respiratory rates, elevated blood pressure, dilated pupils and decreased appetite. In addition, users may experience sweating, headache, blurred vision, dizziness sleeplessness, and anxiety. Extremely high doses can cause a rapid or irregular heartbeat, tremors, loss of coordination, and even physical collapse. An amphetamine injection creates a sudden increase in blood pressure that can result in stroke, very high fever, or heart failure.

In addition to the physical effects, users report feeling restless, anxious, and moody. Higher doses intensify the effects. Persons who use large amounts of amphetamines over a long period of time can develop an amphetamine psychosis that includes hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia. These symptoms usually disappear when drug use ceases.

Type

Street Names

Appearance

How Used

       

Amphetamines

Speed

Capsules

Taken orally

 

Uppers

Pills

Injected

 

Ups

Tablets

Inhaled through

 

Black Beauties

 

nasal passages

 

Pep Pills

   
 

Copilots

   
 

Bumblebees

   
 

Hearts

   
 

Benzedrine

   
 

Dexedrine

   
 

Footballs

   
 

Biphetamine

   
       

Methamphet-

Crank

White powder

Taken orally

amines

Crystal Meth

Pills

Injected

 

Crystal

A rock which resembles a

Inhaled through

 

Methedrine

block of paraffin

nasal passages

 

Speed

   
       

Additional

Ritalin

Pills

Taken orally

Stimulants

Cylert

Capsules

Injected

 

Preludin

Tablets

 
 

Didres

   
 

Pre-State

   
 

Voranil

   
 

Tenuate

   
 

Tepanil

   
 

Pondimin

   
 

Sandres

   
 

Plegine

   
 

Ionamin

   

DEPRESSANTS

Effects

The effects of depressants are in many ways similar to the effects of alcohol. Small amounts can produce calmness and relaxed muscles, but somewhat larger doses can cause slurred speech, staggering gait, and altered perception. Very large doses can cause respiratory depression, coma, and death. The combination of depressants and alcohol can multiply the effects of the drugs, thereby multiplying the risks.

The use of depressants can cause both physical and psychological dependence. Regular use over time may result in a tolerance to the drug, leading the user to increase the quantity consumed. When regular users suddenly stop taking large doses, they may develop withdrawal symptoms ranging from restlessness, insomnia, and anxiety to convulsions and death.

Babies born to mothers who abuse depressants during pregnancy may be physically dependent on the drugs and show withdrawal symptoms shortly after they are born. Birth defects and behavioral problems also may result.

Type

Street Name

Appearance

How Used

       

Barbiturates

Downers

Red, yellow, blue, or red

Taken orally

 

Barbs

and blue

 
 

Blue Devils

   
 

Red Devils

   
 

Yellow Jackets

   
 

Yellows

   
 

Nembutal

   
 

Seconal

   
 

Amytal

   
 

Tuinals

   
       

Methaqualone

Quaaludes

Tablets

Taken orally

 

Ludes

   
 

Sopors

   
       

Tranquilizers

Valium

Tablets

Taken orally

 

Lubrium

Capsules

 
 

Equanil

   
 

Miltown

   
 

Serax

   
 

Tranzene

   

HALLUCINOGENS

Effects

Phencyclidine (PCP) interrupts the functions of the neocortex, the section of the brain that controls the intellect and keeps instincts in check. Because the drug blocks pain receptors, violent PCP episodes may result in self-inflicted injuries.

The effects of PCP vary, but users frequently report a sense of distance and estrangement. Time and body movement are slowed down. Muscular coordination worsens and senses are dulled. Speech is blocked and incoherent.

Chronic users of PCP report persistent memory problems and speech difficulties. Some of these effects may last six (6) months to a year following prolonged daily use. Mood disorders - depression anxiety, and violent behavior - also occur. In later stages of chronic use, users often exhibit paranoid and violent behavior and experience hallucinations. Large doses may produce convulsions and coma, heart and lung failure, or ruptured blood vessels in the brain.

Lysergic acid (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin cause illusions and hallucinations. The physical effects may include dilated pupils, elevated body temperature, increased heart rate and blood pressure, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, and tremors.

Sensations and feelings may change rapidly. It is common to have a bad psychological reaction to LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin. The user may experience panic, confusion, suspicion, anxiety, and loss of control. Delayed effects, or flashbacks, can occur even after use has ceased.

Type

Street Name

Appearance

How Used

       

Phencyclidine

PCP

Liquid

Taken orally

 

Angel Dust

Capsules

Injected

 

Loveboat

White crystalline powder

Smoked - can be

 

Lovely

Pills

sprayed on

 

Hog

 

cigarettes

 

Killer Weed

 

parsley, and

     

marijuana

       

Lysergic Acid

LSD

Brightly colored tablets

Taken orally

Diethylamide

Acid

Impregnated blotter paper

Licked off paper

 

Green or Red

Thin squares of gelatine

Gelatine and

Dragon

Clear liquid

 

liquid can be

 

White Lightning

 

put in the eyes

HALLUCINOGENS (continued)

Type

Street Name

Appearance

How Used

       

Mescaline and

Mesc

Hard brown discs

Discs - chewed,

Peyote

Buttons

Tablets

swallowed, or

 

Cactus

Capsules

smoked

     

Tablets and

     

capsules taken

     

orally

NARCOTICS

Effects

Narcotics initially produce a feeling of euphoria that often is followed by drowsiness, nausea, and vomiting. Users also may experience constricted pupils, watery eyes, and itching. An overdose may produce slow and shallow breathing, clammy skin, convulsions, coma, and possibly death.

Tolerance to narcotics develops rapidly and dependence is likely. The use of contaminated syringes may result in diseases such as AIDS, endocarditis, and hepatitis. Addiction in pregnant women can lead to premature, stillborn, or addicted infants who experience severe withdrawal symptoms.

Type

Street Name

Appearance

How Used

       

Heroin

Smack

Power, white to dark brown

Injected

 

Horse

Tar-like substance

Inhaled through

 

Brown Sugar

 

nasal passages

 

Jounk

   
 

Mud

   
 

Big H

   
 

Black Tar

   
       

Methadone

Dolophine

Solution

Taken orally

 

Methadone

 

Injected

 

Amidone

   

NARCOTICS (continued)

Type

Street Name

Appearance

How Used

       

Codeine

Empirine, compound

Dark liquid varying in

Taken orally

 

with Codeine

thickness

Injected

 

Tylenol with

Capsules

 
 

Codeine

   
 

Cough medicines

   
 

with codeine

   
 

Codeine

   
       

Morphine

Pectoral Syrup

White crystals

Injected

   

Hypodermic tablets

Taken orally

   

Injectable solutions

Smoked

       

Meperidine

Pethidine

White powder

Taken orally

 

Demerol Solution

Injected

 
 

Mepergan

Tablets

 
       

Opium

Paregoric

Dark brown chunks

Smoked

 

Dover's Powder

Powder

Eaten

 

Parepectolia

   
       

Other Narcotics

Percocet

Tablets

Taken orally

 

Percodan

Capsules

Injected

 

Tussionex

Liquid

 
 

Fentanyl

   
 

Darvon

   
 

Talwin

   
 

Lomotil

   

DESIGNER DRUGS

Effects

Illegal drugs are defined in terms of their chemical formulas. To circumvent these legal restrictions, underground chemists modify the molecular structure of certain illegal drugs to produce analogs known as designer drugs. These drugs can be several hundred times stronger than the drugs they are designed to imitate.

The narcotics analogs can cause symptoms such as those seen in Parkinson's disease - uncontrollable tremors, drooling, impaired speech, paralysis, and irreversible brain damage. Analogs of amphetamines and methamphetamines cause nausea, blurred vision, chills or sweating, and faintness. Psychological effects include anxiety, depression, and paranoia. As little as one dose can cause brain damage. The analogs of phencyclidine cause illusions, hallucinations, and impaired perception.

Type

Street Names

Appearance

How Used

       

Analogs of

Synthetic Heroin

White powder resembling

Inhaled through

Fentanyl

China White

heroin

nasal passages

(narcotic)

   

Injected

       

Analogs of

Synthetic Heroin

White powder

Inhaled through

Meperidine

MPTP (New Heroin)

 

nasal passages

(narcotic)

MPPP

   
 

PEAP

   
       

Analogs of

MDMA (Ecstacy,

White powder

Taken orally

Amphetamines

XTC, Adam,

Tablets

Injected

and Metham-

Essence)

Capsules

Inhaled through

phetamines

MDM

 

nasal passages

(hallucinogens)

STP

   
 

PMA

   
 

2.5-DMA

   
 

TMA

   
 

DOM

   
 

DOB

   
       

Analogs of

PCPy

White powder

Taken orally

Phencycidine

PCE

 

Injected

(PCP)

TCP

 

Smoked

(hallucinogens)