Decatur County Community Schools
Administrative Guidelines
 

5530 - SYMPTOMS OF OVERDOSE WITH DRUGS

The descriptions listed below may be useful in detecting drug use through observation of student behavior and physical/mental condition.

 

INHALANTS

 

Effects

Immediate negative effects of inhalants include nausea, sneezing, coughing, nosebleeds, fatigue, lack of coordination, and loss of appetite. Solvents and aerosol sprays also decrease the heart and respiratory rates, and impair judgement. Amyl and butyl nitrite cause rapid pulse, headaches, and involuntary passing of urine and feces. Long-term use may result in hepatitis or brain hemorrhage.

Deeply inhaling the vapors, or using large amounts over a short period of time, may result in disorientation, violent behavior, unconsciousness, or death. High concentrations of inhalants can cause suffocation by displacing the oxygen in the lungs or by depressing the central nervous system to the point that breathing stops. Long-term use can cause weight loss, fatigue, electrolyte imbalance, and muscle fatigue. Repeated sniffing of concentrated vapors over time can permanently damage the nervous system.

Type

Street Names

Appearances

How Used

       

Nitrous Oxide

Laughing gas

Propellant for whipped cream

Vapors inhaled

 

Whippets

in aerosol spray can

 
 

Small 8 gram metal cylinder

sold with a balloon or pipe

(buzz bomb)

 

Amyl Nitrite

Poppers

Clear yellowish liquid in

Vapors inhaled

 

ampules

 
 

Butyl Nitrite

Rush

Packaged in small bottles

Vapors inhaled

 

Bolt

   

Locker room

Bullet

 

Climax

   

INHALANTS (continued)

   
 

Type

Street Name

Appearance

How Used

       

Chlorohydro-

Aerosol sprays

Aerosol paint cans

Vapors inhaled

carbons

 

Containers of cleaning fluid

 
 

Hydrocarbons

Solvents

Cans of aerosol propellants

Vapors inhaled

 

gasoline, glue, paint thinner

 
 

CANNABIS

 

Effects

All forms of cannabis have negative physical and mental effects. Several regularly observed physical effects of cannabis are a substantial decrease in the heart rate, bloodshot eyes, dry mouth and throat, and increased appetite.

Use of cannabis may impair or reduce short term memory and comprehension, alter sense of time, and reduce ability to perform tasks requiring concentration and coordination such as driving a car. Research also shows that students do not retain knowledge when they are "high". Motivation and cognition may be altered, making the acquisition of new information difficult. Marijuana can also produce paranoia and psychosis.

Because users often inhale the unfiltered smoke deeply and then hold it in their lungs as long as possible, marijuana is damaging to the lungs and pulmonary system. Marijuana smoke contains more cancer-causing agents than tobacco.

Long-term users of cannabis may develop psychological dependency and require more of the drug to get the same effect. The drug can become the center of their lives.

Type

Street Name

Appearance

How Used

 

Marijuana

Pot

Dried parsley mixed with

Eaten

 

Grass

stems that may include seeds

Smoked

Weed

   

Reefer

Dope

Mary Jane

Sinsemilla

Acapulco Gold

Thai Sticks

 

Tetrahydro-

THC

Soft gelatin capsules

Taken orally

cannabinol

 

Smoked

 

Hashish

Hash

Brown or black cakes or

Eaten

 

balls

Smoked

 

Hashish Oil

Hash Oil

Concentrated syrupy liquid

Smoked-mixed

 

varying in color from clear

with tobacco

to black

 
 

STIMULANT: COCAINE

 

Effects

Cocaine stimulates the central nervous system. Its immediate effects include dilated pupils and elevated blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature. Occasional use can cause a stuffy or runny nose, while chronic use can ulcerate the mucous membrane of the nose. Injecting cocaine with unsterile equipment can cause AIDS, hepatitis, and other diseases. Preparation of freebase, which involves the use of volatile solvents, can result in death or injury from fire or explosion. Cocaine can produce psychological and physical dependency, a feeling that the user cannot function without the drug. In addition, tolerance develops rapidly.

Crack or freebase rock is extremely addictive, and its effects are felt within ten (10) seconds. The physical effects include dilated pupils, increased pulse rate, elevated blood pressure, insomnia, loss of appetite, tactile hallucinations, paranoia, and seizure.

The use of cocaine can cause death by disrupting the brain's control of the heart and respiration.

Type

Street Name

Appearance

How Used

 

Cocaine

Coke

White crystalline powder,

Inhaled through

 

Snow

often diluted with other

nasal passages

Flake

ingredients

Injected

White

 

Smoked

Blow

 

Nose Candy

Big C

Snowbirds

Lady

 

Crack or

Crack

Light brown or beige pellets

Smoked

Cocaine

Freebase rocks

- or crystalline rocks that

 
 

Rock

resemble coagulated soap;

 

often packaged in small vials

 

OTHER STIMULANTS

 

Effects

Stimulants can cause increased heart and respiratory rates, elevated blood pressure, dilated pupils and decreased appetite. In addition, users may experience sweating, headache, blurred vision, dizziness, sleeplessness, and anxiety. Extremely high doses can cause a rapid or irregular heartbeat, tremors, loss of coordination, and even physical collapse. An amphetamine injection creates a sudden increase in blood pressure that can result in stroke, very high fever, or heart failure.

In addition to the physical effects, users report feeling restless, anxious, and moody. Higher doses intensify the effects. Persons who use large amounts of amphetamines over a long period of time can develop an amphetamine psychosis that includes hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia. These symptoms usually disappear when drug use ceases.

Type

Street Names

Appearance

How Used

 

Amphetamines

Speed

Capsules

Taken orally

 

Uppers

Pills

Injected

Ups

Tablets

Inhaled through

Black Beauties

 

nasal passages

Pep Pills

 

Copilots

Bumblebees

Hearts

Benzedrine

Dexedrine

Footballs

Biphetamine

 

Methamphet-

Crank

White powder

Taken orally

amines

Crystal Meth

Pills

Injected

 

Crystal

A rock which resembles a

Inhaled through

Methedrine

block of paraffin

nasal passages

Speed

 
 

Additional

Ritalin

Pills

Taken orally

Stimulants

Cylert

Capsules

Injected

 

Preludin

Tablets

Didres

 

Pre-State

Voranil

Tenuate

Tepanil

Pondimin

Sandres

Plegine

Ionamin

 

DEPRESSANTS

 

Effects

The effects of depressants are in many ways similar to the effects of alcohol. Small amounts can produce calmness and relaxed muscles, but somewhat larger doses can cause slurred speech, staggering gait, and altered perception. Very large doses can cause respiratory depression, coma, and death. The combination of depressants and alcohol can multiply the effects of the drugs, thereby multiplying the risks.

The use of depressants can cause both physical and psychological dependence. Regular use over time may result in a tolerance to the drug, leading the user to increase the quantity consumed. When regular users suddenly stop taking large doses, they may develop withdrawal symptoms ranging from restlessness, insomnia, and anxiety to convulsions and death.

Babies born to mothers who abuse depressants during pregnancy may be physically dependent on the drugs and show withdrawal symptoms shortly after they are born. Birth defects and behavioral problems also may result.

Type

Street Name

Appearance

How Used

Barbiturates

Downers

Red, yellow, blue, or red

Taken orally

 

Barbs

and blue

Blue Devils

 

Red Devils

Yellow Jackets

Yellows

Nembutal

Seconal

Amytal

Tuinals

Methaqualone

Quaaludes

Tablets

Taken orally

 

Ludes

 

Sopors

Tranquilizers

Valium

Tablets

Taken orally

 

Lubrium

Capsules

Equanil

 

Miltown

Serax

 

Tranzene

 

HALLUCINOGENS

 

Effects

Phencyclidine (PCP) interrupts the functions of the neocortex, the section of the brain that controls the intellect and keeps instincts in check. Because the drug blocks pain receptors, violent PCP episodes may result in self-inflicted injuries.

The effects of PCP vary, but users frequently report a sense of distance and estrangement. Time and body movement are slowed down. Muscular coordination worsens and senses are dulled. Speech is blocked and incoherent.

Chronic users of PCP report persistent memory problems and speech difficulties. Some of these effects may last six (6) months to a year following prolonged daily use. Mood disorders - depression anxiety, and violent behavior - also occur. In later stages of chronic use, users often exhibit paranoid and violent behavior and experience hallucinations. Large doses may produce convulsions and coma, heart and lung failure, or ruptured blood vessels in the brain.

Lysergic acid (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin cause delusions and hallucinations. The physical effects may include dilated pupils, elevated body temperature, increased heart rate and blood pressure, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, and tremors.

Sensations and feelings may change rapidly. It is common to have a bad psychological reaction to LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin. The user may experience panic, confusion, suspicion, anxiety, and loss of control. Delayed effects, or flashbacks, can occur even after use has ceased.

Type

Street Name

Appearance

How Used

Phencyclidine

PCP

Liquid

Taken orally

 

Angel Dust

Capsules

Injected

Loveboat

White crystalline powder

Smoked - can be

Lovely

Pills

sprayed on

Hog

 

cigarettes

Killer Weed

parsley, and

 

marijuana

Lysergic Acid

LSD

Brightly colored tablets

Taken orally

Diethylamide

Acid

Impregnated blotter paper

Licked off paper

Thin squares of gelatine

Gelatine and

 

Dragon

Green or Red

liquid can be

White Lightning

Clear liquid

put in the eyes

HALLUCINOGENS (continued)

 

Type

Street Name

Appearance

How Used

 

Mescaline and

Mesc

Hard brown discs

Discs - chewed,

Peyote

Buttons

Tablets

swallowed, or

 

Cactus

Capsules

smoked

 

Tablets and

capsules taken

 

orally

 

NARCOTICS

 

Effects

Narcotics initially produce a feeling of euphoria that often is followed by drowsiness, nausea, and vomiting. Users also may experience constricted pupils, watery eyes, and itching. An overdose may produce slow and shallow breathing, clammy skin, convulsions, coma, and possibly death.

Tolerance to narcotics develops rapidly and dependence is likely. The use of contaminated syringes may result in diseases such as AIDS, endocarditis, and hepatitis. Addiction in pregnant women can lead to premature, stillborn, or addicted infants who experience severe withdrawal symptoms.

Type

Street Name

Appearance

How Used

 

Heroin

Smack

Powder, white to dark brown

Injected

 

Horse

Tar-like substance

Inhaled through

Brown Sugar

 

nasal passages

Jounk

 

Mud

Big H

Black Tar

 

Methadone

Dolophine

Solution

Taken orally

 

Methadone

 

Injected

Amidone

 

NARCOTICS (continued)

 

Type

Street Name

Appearance

How Used

 

Codeine

Empirine, compound

Dark liquid varying in

Taken orally

 

with Codeine

thickness

Injected

Tylenol with

Capsules

 

Codeine

 

Cough medicines

with codeine

Codeine

 

Morphine

Pectoral Syrup

White crystals

Injected

 

Hypodermic tablets

Taken orally

Injectable solutions

Smoked

 

Meperidine

Pethidine

White powder

Taken orally

 

Demerol Solution

Tablets

Injected

Mepergan

 
 

Opium

Paregoric

Dark brown chunks

Smoked

 

Dover's Powder

Powder

Eaten

Parepectolia

 
 

Other Narcotics

Percocet

Tablets

Taken orally

 

Percodan

Capsules

Injected

Tussionex

Liquid

Fentanyl

 

Darvon

Talwin

Lomotil

 

DESIGNER DRUGS

 

Effects

Illegal drugs are defined in terms of their chemical formulas. To circumvent these legal restrictions, underground chemists modify the molecular structure of certain illegal drugs to produce analogs known as designer drugs. These drugs can be several hundred times stronger than the drugs they are designed to imitate.

The narcotics analogs can cause symptoms such as those seen in Parkinson's disease - uncontrollable tremors, drooling, impaired speech, paralysis, and irreversible brain damage. Analogs of amphetamines and methamphetamines cause nausea, blurred vision, chills or sweating, and faintness. Psychological effects include anxiety, depression, and paranoia. As little as one dose can cause brain damage. The analogs of phencyclidine cause illusions, hallucinations, and impaired perception.

Type

Street Names

Appearance

How Used

 

Analogs of

Synthetic Heroin

White powder resembling

Inhaled through

Fentanyl

China White

heroin

nasal passages

(narcotic)

 

Injected

 

Analogs of

Synthetic Heroin

White powder

Inhaled through

Meperidine

MPTP (New Heroin)

 

nasal passages

(narcotic)

MPPP

 
 

PEAP

 

Analogs of

MDMA (Ecstacy,

White powder

Taken orally

Amphetamines

XTC, Adam,

Tablets

Injected

and Metham-

Essence)

Capsules

Inhaled through

phetamines

MDM

 

nasal passages

(hallucinogens)

STP

 
 

PMA

2.5-DMA

TMA

DOM

DOB

 

Analogs of

PCP

White powder

Taken orally

Phencyclidine

PCE

 

Injected

(PCP)

TCP

Smoked

(hallucinogens)

 

© Neola 2012