Britton Deerfield School District 
Administrative Guidelines 
2231  GUIDELINES FOR PLANNING EFFECTIVE LEARNING ACTIVITIES
WHAT 
WHY 
HOW 
WITH WHAT 
RESULT 

1. 
Determine and justify specific learning need. 
Unless the teacher is clear about what students need to learn and why, the learning time is easily wasted and there is no focus to the students’ learning effort. 
Determine what learners need to know or be able to do. Compare need with what they currently know or can do. Select first essential learning gap to be filled. 
Course of Study, direct observation, staff input, teacher guides, etc. 
A concise statement of the learning need (links the content with learning task). 
2. 
Describe the needed or desired learning result. 
Unless teacher/learners have a clear picture of the outcome, needed achievement cannot be confirmed nor can the learning be adequately justified. 
Form a mental picture of the situation that it would be like if the learning need has been met both appropriately and sufficiently. 
Personal knowledge of such a result or a description of the learning result as provided by a competent resource. 
A complete, accurate description of what learners will have said or done at the completion of the learning task. 
3. 
Decide on the learning and associated teaching strategies needed to produce the learning result. 
This decision circumscribes the necessary sequence of events so that time/effort are not wasted on unproductive actions. 
Analyze the learning result by asking "What do learners need to do to achieve this result?" Then ask, "What do I need to do for them to participate properly in the learning?" 
Previous experience or reference to effective learning/teaching strategies. 
A listing of the teaching strategies, or if necessary, a listing of the essential actions. 
4. 
Select needed materials and/or resource people. 
Without the information available in appropriate forms, learners/teachers do not have the content necessary to produce the learning result. 
Refer to Course of Study or other resources that provide the essential data. Examine carefully to confirm data is complete, accurate, and appropriate for the particular learners. 
Course of Study, task analyses, personal knowledge of related situations, media centers, etc. 
A complete, accurate description of the critical information as well as the means for its presentation. 
WHAT 
WHY 
HOW 
WITH WHAT 
RESULT 

5. 
Determine the procedures for managing and organizing materials and learners. 
Because any learning activity can take place in a variety of ways, it is economical and efficient to determine ahead of time the most favorable, possible conditions for achieving the learning result. 
Decide how students will be organized first. Ask yourself, "What are the most effective ways for students to be organized so they can achieve the result?" Then consider materials  how many, when, where, etc. 
Notes from previous lessons, references which describe how to establish a productive learning environment, etc. 
A description of the physical arrangements of students and materials plus the schedule for conducting the learning activities. 
6. 
Decide on the Initiating Procedure. 
Essential to establishing focus and relevance for learners. 
Refer to learning result for designing a lesson overview. Refer to Teacher Guides for general focus procedures and adapt for a particular situation. Examine to be sure the procedure will initiate relevant, onfocus learning behavior. 
Step 2 of your plan. 
A statement students will understand concerning what is to be done, why, and the intended result. A question or direction that meets the criteria for initiating focused, relevant learning. 
7. 
Determine followthrough procedures needed to ensure the learning result. 
The learning result will not occur from only the Initiating Procedure. Without wellplanned followthrough, the prospects for students achieving the needed result is almost nil. 
Anticipate what could occur during the activity that could interfere with students achieving the learning result. 
Previous experience with such activities, colleagues’ advice, teacher guides, etc. 
A list of questions and direction that ensure achievement of the intended learning. 
WHAT 
WHY 
HOW 
WITH WHAT 
RESULT 

8. 
Check internal consistency of each element in the plan. 
It is easy to think of different elements as separate entities and not as a necessary part of the whole process for achieving the needed result. If elements are not related, the result is in jeopardy. 
Analyze the assessed needs relative to the expected result and ask, "If this result were achieved, would the needs of the situation be met satisfactorily?" 
Notes from teacher training and this plan. 
An appropriate and sufficient plan that maximizes the likelihood that the learners will achieve the needed learning result. 
9. 
Design followup activities. 
If students achieved the result, the learning lesson should be used to apply or reinforce, or to develop new, related learnings. If not, lack of learning needs to be addressed. 
Plan additional lessons using these guidelines and the experiences of this lesson. 
© Neola 2002